Peripheral nervous system is responsible for linking a humans central nervouse system i.e. Brain and spinal cord, to the remaining body parts. i.e. upper limbs, lower limbs, internal viscera, face and mouth. The nerves of peripheral nervous system carry signals from your body to the central nervous system. When these nerves are disrupted in some way it alters their functioning, peripheral neuropathy results.
Due to this, a person perceives pain without the presence of any painful stimuli or a person may not perceive anything at all even with a painful stimulus. There are some reasons for this to occur which are briefly described below. There are three kinds of peripheral nerves are i.e. sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves, all can be altered by neuropathy.
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Causes of peripheral neuropathy:
A positive family history is a risk factor for developing peripheral neuropathy. In addition to this a great number of risk factors and other disorders that may lead to peripheral neuropathy.
One of the commonest underlying conditions for neuropathy is diabetes, as nerves undergo damage resulting from hiked up levels of sugar in the blood. The disorder manifests itself as numbness, weakness, pain, and sensation loss in the limbs. The risk of developing neuropathy in diabetic patients as well as those who are obese, hypertensive, or over forty years of age is greater.
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Other chronic disorders leading to neuropathy
Renal diseases, with the accumulation of great quantities of toxins in the body.
Hypothyroidism, an inability of the thyroid gland to generate adequate amounts of thyroid hormone causes the retention of excess fluid thus exerting on nerves.
Inflammatory diseases which result in chronic inflammation might disseminate to the nerves or their surrounding structures.
Vitamin deficiencies Vitamins if deficient in body esp. E, B1, B6, and B12 complex, which are vital to nerve maintenance and working can lead to peripheral neuropathy.
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One of the commonest causes is trauma or injury, e.g. falls, accidents, etc. Sedentariness, or staying in one posture for a long duration can also cause this disorder. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the name for median nerve entrapment in the carpal tunnel around the wrist, this neuropathy causes pressure on the median nerve causing symptoms in three and a half fingers, and thus ape hand deformity if the problem becomes severe.
Both alcohol and toxins of various kinds, e.g. pesticides, glue, can lead to increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy. Contact with heavy metals too can culminate in neuropathy.
Pathogens e.g. various viruses or bacteria can infect nerve tissue, lead to peripheral neuropathy. For instance, herpes, varicella-zoster, HIV and Epstein-Barr viruses can disrupt sensory nerves causing strong stabbing aches. Likewise, various bacterial species can also lead to neuropathy.
Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosis and other such autoimmune disorders cause chronic inflammation along with the destruction of other tissues across the body. The pressure generated by inflammation causes intense neuropathic discomfort in the limbs.
Another risk factor includes some mediations for instance anti-seizures, antibiotics, antihypertensive drugs, and anti-cancer drugs. Some evidence has also been found that cardiac drugs and cholesterol lowering drugs, also lead to neuropathy.
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